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Saint-André, P-A and G De Iuliis. 2001. The smallest and most ancient representative of the genus Megatherium Cuvier, 1796 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae), from the Pliocene of the Bolivian Altiplano. Geodiversitas 23(4): 625-645.

Salas, E, T Wolf and S Harris. 2014. Chronic renal disease in a captive two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 45(2): 402-405.

Salas, R, F Pujos and C de Muizon. 2005. Ossified meniscus and cyamo-fabella in some fossil sloths: a morpho-functional interpretation. Geobios 38: 389-394.

Salinas, P, JA Naranjo and LG Marshall. 1991. Nuevos restos del perezoso gigante (Megatheriidae, Megatherium medinae) de la Formacion Chiuchiu, Cuenca del Rio Loa, Calama, norte de Chile. Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria - Record of the Proceedings of the 6th Chilean Geological Congress: 306-309.

Salmi, M. 1955. Additional information of the findings in the Mylodon cave at Ultima Esperanza. Acta Geographica 14: 314-333.

Santos, JCR and G De Iuliis. 1993. Nova interpretaçao sistemática de Urumacotherium garciai Bocquentin-Villanueva, 1984, um Edentata-Tardigrada do Huayueriense da Venezuela. Ameghiniana 30: 340.

Santos, TMS. 1977. Osteologia craniana de Bradypus Linnaeus, 1758 e reavaliação do gênero Scaeopus Peters, 1865. Master's Thesis. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil.

Saraiva, PES and B Magalhaes-Castro. 1975. Sensory and motor representation in the cerebral cortex of the three-toed sloths (Bradypus tridactylus). Brain Research 90(2): 181-193.

Sarich, VM. 1985. Xenarthran systematics:  albumin immunological evidence. IGG Montgomery (ed.), The Ecology and Evolution of the Armadillos, Sloths, and Vermilinguas. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C. Pp. 77-87.

Savage, DE. 1946. A mandible of Megalonyx from Oklahoma. Journal of Mammalogy 27(4): 388-390. (Type description, Megalonyx jeffersoni oklahomensis)

Savage, JM. 1974. The isthmian link and the evolution of neotropical mammals. Contributions in Science 260: 1-51.

Schildger, B. 1997. Simple methods for sex determination (verification) in the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) and short-nosed echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Zoologische Garten 67(3): 92-98.

Schinz, HR. 1825. Das Thierreich eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschiechte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von dem Herrn Ritter von Cuvier. Volume IV. Stuttgart and Tübingen. (Type description, Bradypus variegatus)

Schmidt, GD, DW Dusznynski and PS Martin. 1992. Parasites of the extinct shasta ground sloth, Nothrotheriops shastensis, in Rampart Cave, Arizona. Journal of Parasitology 78(5): 811-816.

Schubert, BW, RW Graham, HG McDonald, EC Grimm and TW. Stafford, Jr. 2004. Latest Pleistocene paleoecology of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) and elk-moose (Cervalces scotti) in northern Illinois. Quaternary Research 61: 231-240.

Schulthess, B. 1920. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Xenarthra auf Grund der "Santiago Roth'schen Sammlung" des Zoologischen Museum der Universität Zürich, das Skelett der Hand und des Fusses der Xenarthra, etc. Mémoires de la Societe Paléontologique Suisse 44: 1-120.

Scillato-Yané, GJ. 1976a. Sobre algunos restos de Mylodon(?) listai (Edentata, Tardigrada) procedentes de la cueva "Las Buitreras" (provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina). Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropología 10: 309-312.

––– 1976b. El más antiguo Mylodontinae (Edentata, Tardigrada) conocido: Glossotheriops pascuali n. gen. n. sp. del “Colloncurense” (Mioceno Superior) de la provincial de Rio Negro (Argentina). Ameghiniana 13: 333-334.

––– 1977. Octomylodontinae:  nueva subfamilia de Mylodontidae (Edentata, Tardigrada). Descripción del caráneo y mandíbula de Octomylodon robertoscagliai n. sp., procedentes de la Formación Arroo Chasico (Edad Chasiquense, Plioceno Temprano) del sur de al Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Algunos consideraciones filogenéticas y sistemáticas sobre los Mylodontoidea. Publicaciones del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Mar del Plata "Lorenzo Scaglia" 2: 123-140. (type description, Octomylodon robertoscagliai)

––– 1979. Nuevo Nothrotheriinae (Edentata, Tardigrada) de Edad Chasiquense (Plioceno temprano) del sur de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Su importancia bioestratigráfica, filogenética y paleobiogeográfica. Actas do VII Congreso Geológico Argentino (Neuquén, 1978) 2: 449-457.

––– 1980. Nuevo Magalonychidae (Edentata, Tardigrada) del "Mesopotamiense" (Mioceno tardio-Plioceno) de la Provincia de Entre Riosl. Ameghiniana 17: 193-199. (type description, Paranabradys)

––– 1986. Los Xenarthra fósiles de Argentina (Mammalia, Edentata). Simposio "Evolution de los vertebrados cenozoicos." Actas IV Congreso Argentino de Paleontologia y Bioestratigrafia (Mendoza, 1986) II: 151-156.

Scillato-Yané, GJ, MA Uliana and R Pascual. 1976. Un Megalonychidae (Edentata, Pilosa) del Plioceno de la Provincia de Rio Negro (Argentina). Su importacia bioestratigrafica y paleobiogeografica. Actas VII do Congreso Geológico Argentino (Bahia Blance, 1975) 1: 579-591.

–––, AA Carlini and SF Vizcaino. 1987. Nuevo Nothrotheriinae (Edentata, Tardigrada) de Edad Chasiquense (Plioceno temprano) del sur de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Ameghiniana 24: 211-215. (type description, Chasicobradys)

–––, SF Vizcaino, AA Carlini and G De Iuliis. 1993. Sistemática y filogenia de los Tardigrada del Mioceno medio de Patagonia II: Megatheroidea. Ameghiniana 30: 112-113.

Scott, WB. 1904. Mammalia of the Santa Cruz beds, Part 1. Edentata. Report of Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia, 1896-1899, 5: 161-364. (type description, Megalonychotherium)

Sedor, FA, PA Born and FMS. Santos. 2004. Fósseis pleistocênos de Scelidodon (Mylodontidae) e Tapirus (Tapiridae) em cavernas paranaenses (PR, Sul do Brasil). Acta Biológica Paranaense 33(1/4): 121-128.

Sefve, I. 1915a. Ueber einen Scelidotherium-Schädelaus Tarija, Bolivia. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-akadmiens Handlingar. Stockholm, Bd 53(4): 1-12.

––– 1915b. Scelidotherium-Reste aus Ulloma, Bolivia. Bulletin of the Geological Institute of the University of Upsala 13: 61-92.

Shaw, JJ and R Lainson. 1973. Toxoplasmosis of the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus, in Brazil. Journal of Parasitology 59(1): 206-207.

Sherman, JA. 1984. Functional morphology of the forelimb in nothrotheriine sloths (Mammalia:  Xenarthra=Edentata). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago Microfilms, Chicago, 478 pp.

Sicher, H. 1944. Masticatory apparatus of the sloths. Fieldiana, Zoology 29:  161-168.

Simons, EL and HL Alexander, Jr. 1964. Age of the Shasta ground sloth from Aden Crater, New Mexico. American Antiquity 29(3): 390-391.

–––, LR Godfrey, WL Jungers, PS Chatrath and B Rakotosamimanana. 1992. A new giant subfossil lemur, Babakotia, and the evolution of sloth lemurs. Folia Primatologica 58: 197-203.

Simpson, GG. 1940. Review of the mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 83(5): 649-7-9.

––– 1941. A Miocene sloth from southern Chile. American Museum Novitates 1156: 1-6. (type description: Nematherium birdi)

––– and C de Paula Couto. 1981. Fossil mammals from the Cenozoic of Acre, Brazil. III-Pleistocene Edentata Pilosa, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. Iheringia 6: 11-73.

Sinclair, WJ. 1905. New Mammalia from the Quaternary caves of California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 4(7): 145-161.

––– 1906. Some edentate-like remains from the Mascall beds of Oregon. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 5(2): 65-66.

––– 1910. Dermal bones of Paramylodon from the asphaltum deposits of Rancho La Brea, near Los Angeles, California. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 49: 191-195.

Snowball, P. 1998. Ground sloth survival proposed anew. ISC Newsletter 12(1): 1-5.

Sonta, S, I Hayata, M Sasaki and N Kondo. 1980. The karyotype and sex-determination mechanism in the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus. Chromosome Information Service 28: 15-17.

Spaulding, WG, and PS Martin. 1979. Ground sloth dung of the Guadalupe Mountains. In HH Genoways and RJ Baker (eds.), Biological Investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. National Park Service, Washington, D.C. Pp. 259-269.

Spillman, F. 1948. Beitrag zur Kenntnis eines neuen gravigraden Riesensteppentieres (Eremotherium carolinense gen. et spec. nov.), seines Lebensraumes und seiner Lebensweise. Palaeobiologia (Wien) 8(3): 231-279. (Type description, Eremotherium & E. carolinense)

Stafford, W. 1981.  A sloth humerus from Lompoc, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Paleontological Society 13(9-10): 132-134.

Steadman, DW, PS Martin, RDE MacPhee, AJT Jull, HG McDonald, CA Woods, M Iturralde-Vinent and GWL Hodgins. 2005. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(33): 11763-11768.

Stirton, RA. 1953a. Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 64: 603-622.

––– 1953b. A new genus of interatheres from the Miocene of Colombia. University of California Publications, Bulleting of the Department of Geology 29: 265-348.

–––?  Cenozoic mammal remains from the San Francisco Bay region. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology ?: 337-408.

Stock, C. 1913. Nothrotherium and Megalonyx from the Pleistocene of southern California. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 7(17): 341-358.

––– 1914a. Skull and dentition of the mylodont sloths of Rancho La Brea. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 8: 319-334.

––– 1914b. The systematic position of the mylodont sloths from Rancho La Brea. Science 39(1012): 761-763.

––– 1917a. Recent studies of the skull and dentition of Nothrotherium from Rancho La Brea. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 10: 137-164.

––– 1917b. Further observation on the skull structure of the mylodont sloths from Rancho La Brea. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the the Department of Geology 10: 165-178.

––– 1917c. Structure of the pes in Mylodon harlani. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 10(16): 267-286.

––– 1917d. Occurrence of Nothrotherium in Pleistocene cave deposits of California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 28: 233.

––– 1920a. A mounted skeleton of Mylodon harlani. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 12(6): 425-430.

––– 1920b. Origin of the supposed human footprints of Carson City, Nevada. Science 51(1325): 514.

––– 1925. Cenozoic gravigrade edentates of western North America with special reference to the Pleistocene Megalonychinae and Mylodontidae of Rancho La Brea. Carnegie Institute of Washington 331: 1-206.

––– 1931. Problems of antiquity presented in Gypsum Cave, Nevada. Scientific Monthly 32: 22-32.

––– 1936. Sloth tracks in the Carson prison. Westaways 28(7): 26-27.

––– 1942. A ground sloth in Alaska. Science 95: 552-553.

––– 1948. Ground sloth Thinobadistes from the Pliocene of Florida. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 59(12): 1382.

––– and Richards. 1949. A Megalonyx tooth from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Science 1110: 709-710.

Stone, WD. 1957. The gestation period of the two-toed sloth. Journal of Mammalogy 38: 419.

Stovall, JW. 1940. Megalonyx hogani, a new species of ground sloth from Gould, Oklahoma. American Journal of Science 238: 140-146.

Studer, T. 1905. Ueber neue Funde von Gripotherium [sic] listai Ameghino in der Eberhardtschöhle von Ultima Esperanza. Neue Denkschr. der allgem. schwizerischen Gesellschaft für die gesamten Naturwissenschaften 40(1): 1-18.

Suhm, RW. 1978. Preliminary investigation of the La Paloma mammoth site (late Pleistocene), Kenedy County, Texas. TAIUS 11(1): 36.

Sunquist, F. 1986. Secret energy of the sloth. International Wildlife 16(1): 4-11.

Sunquist, ME and GG Montgomery. 1973. Activity patterns and rates of movement of two-toed and three-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infuscatus). Journal of Mammalogy 54(4): 946-954.